EGYPT

EGYPT

EGYPT

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TOP ATTRACTIONS
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Name: The Giza pyramid complex
Location: Cairo, Egypt
The Giza pyramid complex is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. It includes the three Great Pyramids (Khufu/Cheops, Khafre/Chephren and Menkaure/Mykerinos), the Great Sphinx, several cemeteries, a workers' village and an industrial complex. It is located in the Western Desert, approximately 9 km (5 mi) west of the Nile river at the old town of Giza, and about 13 km (8 mi) southwest of Cairo city centre.

The pyramids, which have historically been common as emblems of ancient Egypt in the Western imagination, were popularised in Hellenistic times, when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.

The sides of all three of the Giza pyramids were astronomically oriented to the north-south and east-west within a small fraction of a degree. It is debated, the arrangement of the pyramids is a representation of the Orion constellation according to the disputed Orion correlation theory.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giza_pyramid_complex
Name: Khan el-Khalili
Location: Cairo, Egypt
Khan el-Khalili s a major souk in the historic center of Islamic Cairo. The bazaar district is one of Cairo's main attractions for tourists and Egyptians alike. The site was originally the site of a mausoleum known as turbat az-za'faraan, which was the burial site of the Fatimid caliphs.

The Khan el-Khalili today is mainly occupied by locals rather than foreign merchants and shopholders, but is significantly geared towards tourists. Shops typically sell souvenirs, antiques and jewellery, but many traditional workshops continue to operate in the surrounding area and the adjoining goldsmiths' souq, for example, is still important for locals.

In addition to shops, there are several coffeehouses, restaurants, and street food vendors distributed throughout the market. The coffeeshops are generally small and quite traditional, serving Arabic coffee and usually offering shisha. One of the oldest and most famous coffeehouses is Fishawi's, established in 1773. The al-Hussein Mosque is adjacent to Khan el-Khalili, and Al-Azhar University and with it, the Al-Azhar Mosque are nearby.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khan_el-Khalili
Name: Cairo Citadel
Location: Cairo, Egypt
The Saladin Citadel of Cairo is a medieval Islamic fortification in Cairo, Egypt. The location, on Mokattam hill near the center of Cairo, was once famous for its fresh breeze and grand views of the city. It is now a preserved historic site, with mosques and museums. In 1976, it was proclaimed by UNESCO as a part of the World Heritage Site Historic Cairo (Islamic Cairo) which was "the new centre of the Islamic world, reaching its golden age in the 14th century."

The Citadel was fortified by the Kurdish Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din (Saladin) between 1176 and 1183 CE, to protect it from the Crusaders. Only a few years after defeating the Fatimid Caliphate, Saladin set out to build a wall that would surround both Cairo and Fustat. Saladin is recorded as saying, "With a wall I will make the two [cities of Cairo and Fustat] into a unique whole, so that one army may defend them both; and I believe it is good to encircle them with a single wall from the bank of the Nile to the bank of the Nile." The Citadel would be the centerpiece of the wall.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo_Citadel
FLIGHT TIMES / MAJOR CITIES
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COUNTRY INFORMATION GUIDE
PLEASE SEE BELOW FACTS, USEFUL US GOVERNMENT TRAVEL LINKS AND BUSINESS VISITOR ACTIVITIES, FOR TRAVEL TO EGYPT.
FACTS:
Official Languages: Arabic
Currency: Egypt Pound (EGP)
Time zone: EET (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code: +20
Local / up-to-date weather in Cairo (and other regions): BBC global weather – click here
US GOVT TRAVEL LINKS:

For more useful information on safety & security, local laws / customs, health and more, please see the below official US travel.state.gov web link for Egypt travel advice. NB: Entry requirements herein listed are for US nationals only, unless stated otherwise.

You can also find recommended information on vaccinations, malaria and other more detailed health considerations for travel to Egypt, at the below official US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) weblink.

BUSINESS VISITOR ACTIVITIES*:
Activities you may undertake on a business visa / as a business visitor:
PERMISSIBLE
ATTENDING MEETINGS / DISCUSSIONS: TBC
ATTENDING A CONFERENCE: TBC
RECEIVING TRAINING (CLASSROOM-BASED): TBC
NON-PERMISSIBLE
AUDIT WORK: TBC
PROVIDING TRAINING: TBC
PROJECT WORK: TBC
*This information does not constitute legal advice and is not an exhaustive list. For a full legal assessment on business visitor activities, please revert to your internal company legal team / counsel.
TRAVEL INFORMATION**
It is highly recommenced that you access the above official US travel.state.gov web link and read all safety & security information prior to making your travel arrangements / planning your trip.
PLEASE CLICK / TOGGLE BELOW FOR USEFUL TRAVEL INFORMATION TO EGYPT.

The local currency is the Egyptian pound (ISO code: EGP), which is divided into 100 piastres. The currency is often written as LE (short for French livre égyptienne, or by using the pound sign £ with or without additional letters: E£ and £E. In Arabic, the pound is called genē [màSri] / geni [màSri] (جنيه [مصرى]), in turn derived from English “guinea”, and piastres (pt) are known as ersh (قرش). Wikivoyage uses the “LE” notation for consistency, but expect to see a variety of notations in shops and other businesses.

  • Coins: Denominations are 25pt, 50pt and 1 pound. You won’t really need to know the name piastre, as the smallest value in circulation as of 2014 is 25 piastres, and this is almost always called a “quarter pound” (rob` genē ربع جنيه), and the 50 piastres, “half pound” (noSS genē نص جنيه).
  • Paper money: The banknote denominations are 25 and 50 piastres; 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 pounds.

In Egypt, the pound sterling is called, genē esterlīni (جنيه استرلينى).

The Egyptian pound has been devaluing gradually over the last several decades. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Egyptian pound was valued almost the same as the British pound sterling. Since 2011, the exchange rate has become relatively unstable and inflation sped up. On November 3, 2016, the central bank decided to devaluate the Egyptian pound to an exchange rate similar to that of the black market.

Exchanging money and banks:

Banks and exchange offices or anyone who would exchange currencies, would slightly extra charge you for the official exchange rate. Foreign currencies can be exchanged at exchange offices or banks, so there is no need to resort to the dodgy street moneychangers. Many higher-end hotels price in American dollars or euros and will gladly accept them as payment, often at a premium rate over Egyptian pounds. ATMs are ubiquitous in the cities and probably the best option; they often offer the best rate and many foreign banks have branches in Egypt. These include Barclay’s Bank, HSBC, CitiBank, NSGB, BNP Paribas, Piraeus Bank, CIB, and other local and Arab banks. Bank hours are Sunday to Thursday, 8:30AM-2PM.

You can withdraw local money with a Mastercard or Visa card from many ATMs all over Egypt.

Counterfeit or obsolete notes are not a major problem, but exchanging pounds outside the country can be difficult. American Express, Diners Club, MasterCard and Visa are accepted, but only bigger hotels or restaurants in Cairo and restaurants in tourist areas will readily accept credit cards as payment. Traveller’s cheques can no longer be used.

Before leaving Egypt, even if travelling to neighbouring countries in the Middle East, convert your currency to euros, British pounds or US dollars. Money changers in other countries will give you 30% to 50% per Egyptian Pound than the rate you will get in Egypt, if they accept Egypt’s currency at all. Converting to and from US dollars, euros or British pounds has a relatively small spread, so you will only lose a few per cent.

BY PLANE:

Overland journeys between cities in Egypt are often long, hot, bumpy, dusty, and not altogether safe. There is a good domestic air network, and advance fares are not expensive, so flying internally is often a good option. Obvious exceptions are Cairo – Alexandria and Luxor – Aswan, both only 220 km apart so ground transport will be quicker, and you’d only fly between them to connect onto another domestic or international flight.

Cairo has direct flights to every other major city, including Luxor, Aswan, Abu Simbel, Hurghada, Sharm el-Sheikh, Alexandria, Marsa Matruh, Marsa Alam and Kharga oasis. These run at least daily, and the main cities have several flights a day. There are also daily flights directly between Alexandria, Aswan, Luxor, Hurghada and Sharm el-Sheikh.

Most flights are operated by the national carrier, EgyptAir. This is the first place to go looking. Some internet booking sites (e.g. Expedia) don’t offer their flights – it’ll appear as if you need to fly via Istanbul or similar nonsense. If you don’t have internet access, Egyptair doesn’t do phone sales, but they have lots of downtown booking offices – your hotel can point these out.

There are rival airlines such as Nile Air and Al Masria. Nile Air has flights from Cairo and Alexandria. Al Masria flies to Cairo from Hurghada, and Sharm El Sheikh. Foreign package airlines (e.g. TUI) sometimes fly an internal route, but that’s to move their clients around on multi-centre holidays, and they’re not available to book as point-to-point domestic flights.

BY TRAIN:

Egypt’s mainline railway follows the Nile: from Aswan north through Luxor to Cairo and Alexandria. Branch lines fan out across the Nile delta, as far east as Suez and Port Said, and west along the coast through El Alamein as far as Mersa Matruh. Train is an excellent way to travel between Cairo and Alexandria, and between Luxor and Aswan, with frequent daytime services taking 2–3 hrs. Trains also run between Cairo and Luxor and Aswan, both daytime and overnight. There are no trains to the Red Sea resorts or to Siwa oasis.

Almost all trains are run by the state-owned company Egyptian National Railways (ENR) (the exception is the Cairo-Luxor-Aswan sleeper run by Watania, described below). Express trains have air-conditioned classes called AC1 and AC2 (1st and 2nd class). They are clean and comfortable. For ordinary trains the classes AC1 and AC2 are likewise available, with A/C sometimes in AC1, but never in AC2. Fares are very cheap by Western standards, even the priciest Cairo-Alexandria single ticket is only about LE51 (Oct 2018). It is half that for slower trains, and half again for AC2, respectively. Punctuality could be described as “not bad for Egypt”: trains generally start out from their first station on time but pick up delays along the way. Delays of up to an hour are not uncommon, especially between Cairo and Luxor. So, if your train is coming from somewhere else, do not expect it to be on time.

In addition, local 3rd class trains are a great way to explore attractions in the surrounding area. They can also be used for longer distances if you want to connect with the locals and are on a tight budget. 3rd class sounds worse than it actually is—the chairs are wooden but the interior is sometimes painted well. They are dirt cheap, LE1.50-4 for 50 km, but make sure you have small notes or coins available—even a LE5 note can be a problem. The local train schedule is not available online, so you need to make enquiries at the station. Be insistent, they might just tell you the regular train schedule that you already know from the ENR website, expecting that you would not want to use anything beyond AC2 or even beyond AC1. Also, information can sometimes be very hard to confirm; which time, which platform, which stops. It is best to ask several people/officers and find out what they say. Or have a look at the station departure board a day or so before your intended travel, chances are trains run same time every day. Some local trains can get quite full, but mostly only the ones that travel far.

Travel by foreigners can be subject to security restrictions, but (in early 2018) there were no genuine restrictions. If you get told that a train is not running, it might simple be due to the expectation, e.g. by station personal, or that it cannot be booked online, e.g. by a travel clerk.

Tickets:

The best way to buy tickets for express trains is online, in advance, from ENR. This incurs no add-on charges, guarantees your seat and will save much hassle at stations or booking offices. The site content is in English and Arabic. First register with the site, then purchase is clunky but straightforward. Tickets go on sale 2 weeks ahead of departure – they are usually still available on the day of departure, but trains can book out at busy times. The site will only book expresses, i.e. 1st and 2nd class, and only for the main cities. You will need to file passport details for all the travellers in your group. The ENR site accepts payment from most major credit and debit cards. If you cannot print your ticket immediately, be sure to record the confirmation number so you can retrieve it later – ENR does not send you email confirmation. (Landscape printing is best, as portrait may crop the confirmation number.) The main details of the confirmation are in English, amid a welter of Arabic small print. Other websites, and travel agents offices, will simply sell you what is available on ENR or Watania and will charge extra for doing so.

Otherwise, you can queue at the station—make sure you are aiming for the correct window, and sort your money first to avoid exposing wallet and passport. Or you can board without a ticket and pay the conductor on the train. There is a surcharge of LE6 for this, and platform security do not seem to mind if you do not have a ticket, even for expresses that are supposedly reservation-only.

The self-service ticket machines at the main stations offer service in Arabic and English. If the machine tells you that the “Journey [is] unavailable”, try at the ticket window – you may still get tickets there (Oct 2018).

Buy tickets in advance, since at peak travel times, trains may be fully booked, especially the inexpensive ones. Except during busy holiday periods, it’s not normally difficult to purchase tickets on the day of travel or the day before. To avoid complications, book as far ahead as possible.

The sleeper service Cairo-Luxor-Aswan is run by Watania, a private company. Buy tickets online from them, as ENR do not show those services on their timetable and do not sell tickets.

BY BUS:

Egypt has an extensive long-distance bus network, operated mostly by government-owned companies. Among the largest companies are Bedouin Bus, Pullman, West Delta, Golden Arrow, Super Jet, East Delta, El Gouna, Go Bus and Upper Egypt Bus Co. Popular routes are operated by more than one company. Some bus companies allow you to book seats in advance; some sell spots based upon availability of seats. Online ticketing are available via some companies too.

Beware buying tickets from bus touts on the street or outside your hotel. The smaller companies are sometimes unlicensed and can cut corners with safety. There have been eight serious bus crashes involving foreign nationals since January 2006, in which over 100 people have been killed. If you are a passenger in a vehicle that is travelling at an unsafe speed you should firmly instruct the driver to slow down.

Road accidents are very common in Egypt, mainly due to poor roads, dangerous driving and non-enforcement of traffic laws. Police estimate that road accidents kill over 6,000 people in Egypt each year. This is twice the UK figure. Other estimates put the figure far higher.

BY TAXI:

In bigger cities, especially in Cairo, main streets often become congested at peak times and that may double the time needed to reach where you want to go.

In the cities, taxis are a cheap and convenient way of getting around. Although generally safe, taxis drive as erratically as all the other drivers, especially in Cairo, and there are sometimes fake taxis travel around. Make sure they have official markings on the dashboard or elsewhere; the taxis are always painted in special colours to identify them, as the taxi mark on top of the car. In Cairo the taxis are all white (rarely with advertisement on sides), those ones are preferable as they have a digital counter to tell you how much to pay and you shouldn’t pay more than what the meter tells you, you can tell the driver in advance that you would only pay what the meter displays. Other older taxis are black and white, there are also the rarer Cairo cabs, all in yellow, also with the meter. In Luxor they are blue and white, and in Alexandria yellow and black. In Cairo and Luxor it is often much more interesting to use the taxis and a good guidebook instead of travelling around in a tour bus.

Seemingly, Cairo is alone in Egypt with having a sizeable population of modern metered cabs. Since Jan 2009, in Sharm El Sheikh all airport taxis have meters fitted and they must be used. Generally the best way is to ask at your hotel or someone you know from Egypt for the prices from point-to-point. You could also ask a pedestrian or policemen for the correct price. The best way to hire a taxi is to stand on the side of the road and put out a hand. You will have no trouble attracting a taxi, especially if you are obviously a Westerner. It is generally advisable to take white taxis that use the meter because the black and white taxis usually involve haggling at the end of the ride, some white taxi drivers don’t start the meter unless you ask them to, if they say the meter is broken it’s better to ask the driver to drop you off before you get far. It’s important to have some change with you (a couple of fives and a ten) because some drivers say that they don’t have change to drive off with the rest of your money.

If riding a black and white taxi negotiate a price and destination before getting into the car. At the end of the journey, step out of the car and make sure you have everything with you before giving the driver the payment. If the driver shouts, it’s probably OK, but if he steps out of the car you almost certainly paid too little. Prices can be highly variable but examples are LE20 from central Cairo to Giza, LE10 for a trip inside central Cairo and LE5 for a short hop inside the city. Locals pay less than these prices for taxis which don’t have the meters; the local price in a taxi from Giza or Central Cairo to the airport is LE25-30. Do not be tempted to give them more because of the economic situation; otherwise, ripping off foreigners will become more common and doing so generally tends to add to inflation. The prices listed here are already slightly inflated to the level expected from tourists, not what Egyptians would normally pay. You can also hire taxis for whole days, for LE100-200 if going on longer excursions such as to Saqqara and Dashur from Cairo. Inside the city they are also more than happy to wait for you (often for a small extra charge, but ask the driver), even if you will be wandering around for a few hours.

Taxi drivers often speak enough English to negotiate price and destination, but only rarely more. Some speak more or less fluently and they will double as guides, announcing important places when you drive by them, but they can be hard to find. The drivers often expect to be paid a little extra for that; however, do not feel the need to pay for services that you have not asked for. If you find a good English-speaking driver, you may want to ask him for a card or a phone number, because they can often be available at any time and you will have a more reliable travel experience.

A new line of taxis owned by private companies has been introduced in Cairo. They are all clean and air-conditioned. The drivers are formally dressed and can converse in at least one foreign language, usually English. These taxis stand out because of their bright yellow colour. They can be hailed on the street if they are free or hired from one of their stops (including one in Tahrir square in the city centre). These new taxis use current meters which count by the kilometre, which starts from LE2.50. In general, they are marginally more expensive than the normal taxis; you can call 16516, two hours in advance, in Cairo to hire a taxi.

If you do not want to be bothered by police convoys, tell the police at check points that you work in Egypt. They will demand your passport but actually most cannot read Roman letters and identify anything. Police convoys are more a psychological sooth for tourists instead of real protection—it draws more attention than when you use a local taxi.

Ride-hailing services — Careem and Uber — are available in Cairo, Alexandria and Hurghada, and expanding elsewhere. These provide travellers an easy alternative to taxis as the app translates destinations from English to Arabic, and fares are fixed. They are widely used by Egyptians.

BY CAR:

Gas is inexpensive in Egypt, prices are heavily subsidized: LE6.25 per litre in March 2017. If you decide to rent a car, you will not add significantly to the cost through gas. Car rental sites require you to be at least 21 years old. Driving in Egypt is very different than in a Western country and is not for the faint of heart; unless you really need this option it is just as easy and probably cheaper to travel by taxis and around the country by air, train or bus. As you will see shortly after arrival, obedience of traffic laws is low and there are very few signs indicating road rules. You might also become a target for Egyptian police seeking a bribe, who will pick some trivial offence you have committed and which in reality you could not have avoided.

Also read the note at the end of the last taxi chapter on pretending to be working in Egypt to avoid travelling in convoys.

BY METRO:

Three metro lines serve Greater Cairo, see Cairo#Get around.

BY BOAT:

The ferry across the Red Sea between Hurghada and Sharm el-Sheikh was suspended in 2010, and no re-start is in sight.

EAT:

Egypt can be a fantastic place to sample a unique range of food: not too spicy and well-flavoured with herbs. For a convenient selection of Egyptian cuisine and staple foods try the Felfela chain of restaurants in Cairo. Some visitors complain, however, that these have become almost too tourist-friendly and have abandoned some elements of authenticity. A more affordable and wider-spread alternative is the Arabiata restaurant chain, Arabiata is considered by locals to be the number one destination for Egyptian delicacies as falafel and fūl too.

Beware of any restaurant listed in popular guidebooks and websites. Even if the restaurant was once great, after publication, they will likely create a “special” English menu that includes very high prices.

As in many seaside countries, Egypt is full of fish restaurants and markets so fish and seafood are must-try. Frequently, fish markets have some food stalls nearby where you can point at specific fish species to be cooked. Stalls typically have shared tables, and locals are as frequent there as tourists.

Hygiene:

Be aware that hygiene may not be of the highest standards, depending on the place. The number of tourists that suffer from some kind of parasite or bacterial infection is very high. Despite assurances to the contrary, exercise common sense and bring appropriate medications to deal with problems. “Antinal” (Nifuroxazide), an intestinal antibiotic, is cheap, effective and available in every pharmacy. “Imodium” or similar products are prescription drugs only.

Although Antinal is very effective, sometimes when nothing else is, the elderly should check the brand name with their doctor before relying on it as it contains a high concentration of active ingredient that is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or the British regulatory pharmaceutical body.

People expecting to remain in Egypt for more than 2–3 weeks should be cautious about using Antinal, as it may hinder their ability to acquire immunity to local bacteria and make traveller’s diarrhoea a more frequent problem.

Local dishes:

Many local foods are vegetarian or vegan compliant, a function of the high cost of meat in Egypt and the influence of Coptic Christianity (whose frequent fast days demand vegan food).

Classic Egyptian dishes: The dish fūl medammes is one of the most common Egyptian dishes; consists of fava beans (fūl) slow-cooked in a copper pot (other types of metal pots don’t produce the right type of flavor) that have been partially or entirely mashed. fūl medammes is served with cumin, vegetable oil, optionally with chopped parsley, onion, garlic, lemon juice and hot pepper, and typically eaten with Egyptian (baladi) bread or occasionally Levantine (shāmi) pita.

One should try the classic falāfel which is deep-fried ground fava bean balls (but better known worldwide for the ground chickpea version typically found in other cuisines of the Middle Eastern region) that was believed to be invented by Egyptian Bedouins. Usually served as fast food, or a snack.

koshari is a famous dish, which is usually a mixture of macaroni, lentils, rice and chickpeas, topped with tomato sauce and fried onions. Very popular amongst the locals and a must try for tourists. The gratinated variation is called Tâgen.

Additionally, hummus, a chickpea based food, also widespread in the Middle East.

kofta (meat balls) and kebab are also popular.

Egyptian cuisine is quite similar to the cuisine of the Middle Eastern countries. Dishes like stuffed vegetables and vine leaves and shawarma sandwiches are common in Egypt and the region.

Exotic fruits:

Egypt is one of the most affordable countries for a European to try variety of fresh-grown exotic fruits. Guava, mango, watermelon and banana are all widely available from fruit stalls, especially in locals-oriented non-tourist marketplaces.

DRINK:

Water:

Bottled water is widely available. The local brands (most common being Baraka, Hayat, Siwa ) are of the same price as foreign brand options which are also available: Nestle Pure Life, Dasani (bottled by Coca-Cola), and Aquafina (bottled by Pepsi). Evian is less available and is expensive. While safe to drink some may find the local brand, Baraka, has a very slight baking soda aftertaste, due to the high mineral content of its deep well water source.

No matter where you buy bottled water from (even hotels are not entirely reliable), before accepting it, check that there is a clear plastic seal on it and the neck ring is still attached to the cap by the breakable threads of plastic. It is common to collect empty but new bottles and refill them with tap water which drinking a bottle of might make you ill. Not all brands have the clear plastic cover but all the good ones do.

Safety of bottled water:

It is important not to buy strange brands, as they may not be safe for drinking. In 2012 the Ministry of Health ordered the following bottled water brands to be taken off shelves: Alpha, Hadir, Seway, Aqua Delta, Tiba, Aqua Mina and Aqua Soteir.

As of 2013, some of the previous ones were licensed, but the Ministry of Health warned against other unlicensed brands:

  • unlicensed, unsafe brands: (Safa, el Waha, Ganna, Sahari, Life, el Wadi, Zamzam ).
    (صفا – الواحة – جنا – صحارى – لايف – الوادى – زمزم)

In 2013, the Ministry of Health stated there are only 17 licensed brands that are safe to drink. These are:

  • 17 licensed safe brands: (Hayah, Safi, Aqua Siwa ,Siwa, Aman Siwa, Organica, Nahl, Aqua Sky, Mineral, Vira, Nestlé, Baraka, Alpha, Aquafina, Tiba, Aqua Delta, Dasani, Aqua Paris ).
    (حياه، صافى، أكوا سيوة، سيوة، أمان سيوة، أورجانيكا، نهل، أكوا سكاى، منيرال، فيرا، نستله، بركة، ألفا، أكوافينا، طيبة، أكوا دلتا، داسانى، أكوا باريس)

Of the licensed brands, locals commonly advise tourists to avoid Baraka if possible, as it contains a high concentration of mineral salts and has something of an off flavour.

Juices:

Juices can be widely found in Egypt – àSàb (sugar cane; قصب); liquorice (`erk sūs  عرق سوس); sobya (white juice; سوبيا); tàmr (sweet dates; تمر) and some fresh fruit juices (almost found at same shop which offer all these kind of juices except liquorice may be which you can find another places).

Hibiscus, known locally as karkadē (كركديه) or `ennāb (عناب), is also famous juice specially at Luxor which is drunk hot or cold but in Egypt it is preferred to drink it cold.

Hibiscus and liquorice should not be consumed excessively as they may not be safe for those suffering low blood pressure or high blood pressure. Hibiscus may lower blood pressure, while liquorice may raise blood pressure.

Egypt has a full range of accommodation options, from basic backpacker hostels to five-star resorts. Most major hotel chains are represented in Greater Cairo, Sharm el Sheikh and Luxor, at least. You can reserve most of your accommodation online or contact a local agent who can organise both accommodation and trips.

Walk-in rates give you great discounts over online reservations, e.g. half-price in Aswan. Generally, online reservations are more expensive due to it being used by so many tourists. However, in Egypt most hotels do not have their own website and do not have to commit to the agreement with online reservations sites to offer the same price online as offline. Nevertheless, have a screenshot of the actual online price ready, just in case you encounter a hotel that is willing to overcharge you. In high season, it is best to reserve the first night and haggle for the following night(s). Otherwise, if there is no general shortage of rooms and less than 60 % are booked (usually displayed at the top of online reservation sites), then check out an area with many hotels and go there asking around. Hotels will also happily accept you cancelling your existing online reservation in person for a discount. When reserving online, often you have the flat price, with tax and fees added. Generally, you will get at least these taxes and fees as discount (10-15%) when cancelling the reservation in person and/or when bargaining.

Some online hotel sites state that payment is required in Egyptian pounds by law. However, most hotels will accept Egyptian pounds at a mostly fair conversion from the online stated rate.

Egypt is a shopper’s paradise, especially if you’re interested in Egyptian-themed souvenirs and kitsch. However, there are also a number of high quality goods for sale, often at bargain prices. Some of the most popular purchases include:

  • Alabaster Alabaster bowls, figures, etc are common throughout Egypt.
  • Antiques (NB: not antiquities, the trade of which is illegal in Egypt)
  • Carpets and rugs
  • Cotton goods and clothing Can be bought at Khan El Khalili for around LE30-40. Better quality Egyptian cotton clothing can be bought at various chain stores including Mobaco Cottons and Concrete which have many branches throughout the country. The clothes are expensive for Egypt (about LE180-200 for a shirt) but cheap by Western standards given the quality.
  • Inlaid goods, such as backgammon boards
  • Jewellery Cartouches make a great souvenir. These are metal plates shaped like an elongated oval and have engravings of your name in hieroglyphics
  • Kohl powder Real Egyptian kohl eye make-up (eye-liner) can be purchased at many stores for a small price. It is a black powder, about a teaspoon worth, that is generally sold in a small packet or a wood-carved container and it is generally applied liberally with something akin to a fat toothpick/thin chopstick to the inner eyelids and outlining the eye. Very dramatic, and a little goes a very long way Cleopatra would have had her eye make-up applied by laying on the floor and having someone drop a miniature spoonful of the powder into each eye. As the eye teared up, the make-up would distribute nicely around the eyes and trail off at the sides, creating the classic look. However, beware that most of them contain lead sulphide, which is a health concern. Ask for a lead-free kohl.
  • Lanterns (fanūs; pl. fawanīs) Intricately cut and stamped metal lanterns, often with colourful glass windows, will hold a votive candle in style.
  • Leather goods
  • Music
  • Papyrus (bardi) However, most papyrus you’ll see is made of a different type of reed, not “papyrus”, which is extremely rare. Know what you are buying, if you care about the difference, and haggle prices accordingly. If in doubt, assume it is inauthentic papyrus you are being offered for sale.
  • Perfume – Perfumes can be bought at almost every souvenir shop. Make sure that you ask the salesman to prove to you that there is no alcohol mixed with the perfume. The standard rates should be in the range of LE1-2 for each gram.
  • Water-pipes (shīsha)
  • Spices (tawābel) – can be bought at colourful stalls in most Egyptian markets. Dried herbs and spices are generally of a higher quality than that available in Western supermarkets and are a fifth to a quarter of the price, though the final price will depend on bargaining and local conditions.

When shopping in markets or dealing with street vendors, remember to bargain. This is a part of the salesmanship game that both parties are expected to engage in.

**All travel information has been sourced from wikivoyage. However like wikipedia, wikivoyage is an open platform editable by any member of the public. Therefore, although very useful, all above information IS INDICATIVE ONLY and must be verified prior to personal use. Moreover, if you wish to see more information please visit: https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Egypt
TOP ATTRACTIONS
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Name: The Giza pyramid complex
Location: Cairo, Egypt
The Giza pyramid complex is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. It includes the three Great Pyramids (Khufu/Cheops, Khafre/Chephren and Menkaure/Mykerinos), the Great Sphinx, several cemeteries, a workers' village and an industrial complex. It is located in the Western Desert, approximately 9 km (5 mi) west of the Nile river at the old town of Giza, and about 13 km (8 mi) southwest of Cairo city centre.

The pyramids, which have historically been common as emblems of ancient Egypt in the Western imagination, were popularised in Hellenistic times, when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.

The sides of all three of the Giza pyramids were astronomically oriented to the north-south and east-west within a small fraction of a degree. It is debated, the arrangement of the pyramids is a representation of the Orion constellation according to the disputed Orion correlation theory.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giza_pyramid_complex
Name: Khan el-Khalili
Location: Cairo, Egypt
Khan el-Khalili s a major souk in the historic center of Islamic Cairo. The bazaar district is one of Cairo's main attractions for tourists and Egyptians alike. The site was originally the site of a mausoleum known as turbat az-za'faraan, which was the burial site of the Fatimid caliphs.

The Khan el-Khalili today is mainly occupied by locals rather than foreign merchants and shopholders, but is significantly geared towards tourists. Shops typically sell souvenirs, antiques and jewellery, but many traditional workshops continue to operate in the surrounding area and the adjoining goldsmiths' souq, for example, is still important for locals.

In addition to shops, there are several coffeehouses, restaurants, and street food vendors distributed throughout the market. The coffeeshops are generally small and quite traditional, serving Arabic coffee and usually offering shisha. One of the oldest and most famous coffeehouses is Fishawi's, established in 1773. The al-Hussein Mosque is adjacent to Khan el-Khalili, and Al-Azhar University and with it, the Al-Azhar Mosque are nearby.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khan_el-Khalili
Name: Cairo Citadel
Location: Cairo, Egypt
The Saladin Citadel of Cairo is a medieval Islamic fortification in Cairo, Egypt. The location, on Mokattam hill near the center of Cairo, was once famous for its fresh breeze and grand views of the city. It is now a preserved historic site, with mosques and museums. In 1976, it was proclaimed by UNESCO as a part of the World Heritage Site Historic Cairo (Islamic Cairo) which was "the new centre of the Islamic world, reaching its golden age in the 14th century."

The Citadel was fortified by the Kurdish Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din (Saladin) between 1176 and 1183 CE, to protect it from the Crusaders. Only a few years after defeating the Fatimid Caliphate, Saladin set out to build a wall that would surround both Cairo and Fustat. Saladin is recorded as saying, "With a wall I will make the two [cities of Cairo and Fustat] into a unique whole, so that one army may defend them both; and I believe it is good to encircle them with a single wall from the bank of the Nile to the bank of the Nile." The Citadel would be the centerpiece of the wall.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo_Citadel
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...WHO ARE WE?

...WHO ARE WE?

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My name is Manny and I would like to personally welcome you to Global Visas.

Our team is dedicated to providing a consular service which focuses on attention to detail, delivering a personal approach and with a high focus on compliance. Feedback is very important to us, therefore any comments you provide about our service are invaluable.

Our team is dedicated to providing a consular service which focuses on attention to detail, delivering a personal approach and with a high focus on compliance. Feedback is very important to us, therefore any comments you provide about our service are invaluableI have provided some of my own personal testimonials over my years in immigration below; working and leading on very large projects...

I have provided some of my own personal testimonials over my years in immigration below; working and leading on very large projects.

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