VIETNAM

VIETNAM

VIETNAM

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Name: Ha Long Bay
Location: Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam
Ha Long Bay is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and popular travel destination in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. The name Hạ Long means "descending dragon". Administratively, the bay belongs to Ha Long City, Cam Pha City, and is a part of Van Don District. The bay features thousands of limestone karsts and isles in various shapes and sizes. Ha Long Bay is a center of a larger zone which includes Bai Tu Long Bay to the northeast, and Cat Ba Island to the southwest. These larger zones share a similar geological, geographical, geomorphological, climate, and cultural characters.

Ha Long Bay has an area of around 1,553 km2, including 1,960–2,000 islets, most of which are limestone. The core of the bay has an area of 334 km2 with a high density of 775 islets. The limestone in this bay has gone through 500 million years of formation in different conditions and environments. The evolution of the karst in this bay has taken 20 million years under the impact of the tropical wet climate. The geo-diversity of the environment in the area has created biodiversity, including a tropical evergreen biosystem, oceanic and sea shore biosystem. Ha Long Bay is home to 14 endemic floral species and 60 endemic faunal species.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hạ_Long_Bay
Name: Phú Quốc
Location: Kiên Giang Province, Vietnam
Phú Quốc is the largest island in Vietnam. The island has a total area of 574 square kilometres and a permanent population of approximately 103,000. Located in the Gulf of Thailand, the district of Phú Quốc includes the island proper and 21 smaller islets. Dương Đông town, is located on the west coast, and is also the administrative and largest town on the island. The other township is An Thoi on the southern tip of the island.

The economy is centred on fishing, agriculture and a fast-growing tourism sector. Phu Quoc has achieved fast economic growth due to its current tourism boom. Many infrastructure projects have been carried out, including several five-star hotels and resorts. Phu Quoc International Airport is the hub connecting Phú Quốc with mainland Vietnam and other international destinations.

From March 2014, Vietnam allowed all foreign tourists to visit Phú Quốc visa-free for a period of up to 30 days. By 2017, the government of Vietnam planned to set up a Special Administrative Region which covered Phu Quoc Island and peripheral islets and upgrades it to a provincial city with special administration.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phú_Quốc
Name: Hoan Kiem Lake
Location: Hanoi, Vietnam
Hoan Kiem Lake, is a fresh water lake, measuring some 12 ha in the historical center of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The lake is one of the major scenic spots in the city and serves as a focal point for its public life.

According to the legend, in early 1428, Emperor Lê Lợi was boating on the lake when a Golden Turtle God surfaced and asked for his magic sword, Heaven's Will. Lợi concluded that Kim Qui had come to reclaim the sword that its master, a local God, the Dragon King had given Lợi some time earlier, during his revolt against Ming China. Later, the Emperor gave the sword back to the turtle after he finished fighting off the Chinese. Emperor Lợi renamed the lake to commemorate this event, from its former name Luc Thuy meaning "Green Water". The Turtle Tower standing on a small island near the centre of lake is linked to the legend. The first name of Hoàn Kiếm lake is Tả Vọng, when the King hadn't given the Magical Sword back to the Golden Turtle God.

Large soft-shell turtles, either of the species Rafetus swinhoei or a separate species named Rafetus leloi in honor of the emperor, had been sighted in the lake for many years.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoàn_Kiếm_Lake
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COUNTRY INFORMATION GUIDE
PLEASE SEE BELOW FACTS, USEFUL US GOVERNMENT TRAVEL LINKS AND BUSINESS VISITOR ACTIVITIES, FOR TRAVEL TO VIETNAM.
FACTS:
Official Languages: Vietnamese
Currency: Vietnam đồng (VND)
Time zone: ICT (Indochina Time) (UTC+7)
Drives on the right
Calling code: +84
Local / up-to-date weather in Hanoi (and other regions): BBC global weather – click here
US GOVT TRAVEL LINKS:

For more useful information on safety & security, local laws / customs, health and more, please see the below official US travel.state.gov web link for Vietnam travel advice. NB: Entry requirements herein listed are for US nationals only, unless stated otherwise.

You can also find recommended information on vaccinations, malaria and other more detailed health considerations for travel to Vietnam, at the below official US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) weblink.

BUSINESS VISITOR ACTIVITIES*:
Activities you may undertake on a business visa / as a business visitor:
PERMISSIBLE
ATTENDING MEETINGS / DISCUSSIONS: TBC
ATTENDING A CONFERENCE: TBC
RECEIVING TRAINING (CLASSROOM-BASED): TBC
NON-PERMISSIBLE
AUDIT WORK: TBC
PROVIDING TRAINING: TBC
PROJECT WORK: TBC
*This information does not constitute legal advice and is not an exhaustive list. For a full legal assessment on business visitor activities, please revert to your internal company legal team / counsel.
TRAVEL INFORMATION**
It is highly recommenced that you access the above official US travel.state.gov web link and read all safety & security information prior to making your travel arrangements / planning your trip.
PLEASE CLICK / TOGGLE BELOW FOR USEFUL TRAVEL INFORMATION TO VIETNAM.

The national currency is the dong (đồng), sometimes denoted by the symbol “₫” (ISO code: VND). Prices are usually shown without a currency notation, e.g. as “100.000”, “100k” or “100K”. Wikivoyage articles will use dong to denote the currency.

It is difficult to find or exchange outside Vietnam, with some notable exceptions such as Singapore or Bangkok; if you don’t come from either of those places, you should change money on arrival and try to get rid of any leftovers before leaving the country. Continuing inflation and a series of devaluations continues to steadily push down the value of the dong.

Notes are available in denominations of 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000 and 500,000 dong. Coins in denominations of 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 5,000 dong are rarely seen.

Prices are widely advertised in U.S. dollars, namely because of the unstable currency valuation of the dong, but unlike neighboring Cambodia or Myanmar, payment is often, indeed almost always expected in dong only, especially outside major tourist destinations. It is also easier to bargain with dong, especially since dollar prices are already rounded. Credit card purchases are required by law to be charged in dong. If paying with dollars, bills in less than perfect condition may be rejected. USbut unlike neighboring Cambodia or Myanmar bills (especially those printed in the 1970s) are considered lucky in Vietnam and are worth more than USbut unlike neighboring Cambodia or Myanmar. They make a good tip/gift, and many Vietnamese will keep them in their wallet for luck. US$50 and US$100 notes get a higher exchange rate than notes of lower denominations.

There is no need to change your cash into U.S. dollars first. Banks and gold shops offer equally attractive rates for most trade-able international and regional currencies.

When exchanging dollars (and other hard currencies), “unofficial exchange agents” like hotels and travel agencies often have a considerable spread between dong buy/sell rates, and sometimes they have different rates for different services. Official exchange counters however, e.g. at the airport or in the city centre, have quite competitive buy and sell rates with spreads as low as 2%, depending on the currency.

In addition to banks and official exchange counters, you can exchange most hard currencies (sterling pounds; yen; Swiss francs; euros; Thai baht; US, Australian, Singapore dollars) at gold shops. This is vaguely illegal, but enforcement is minimal. The best place in many cities in Vietnam to find gold shops that will transact currency exchange is to head for the central food/clothing market. Exchange rates are close to the Interbank rate (check what that is on the internet beforehand) and the procedure is very straightforward. There is no form filling or passport required.

BY PLANE:

Flights are the fastest way to traverse this long country. The flight from Hanoi to HCMC is only about 2 hours.

There are many flights connecting the two largest cities, Hanoi and HCMC, to major towns such as Da Nang, Hai Phong, Can Tho, Hue, Nha Trang, Da Lat, Phu Quoc. In the past most of these flights were cheap compared to European or North American flights. However, prices are higher than previously with, for example, a return connecting Hanoi to Da Nang costing around US$120-150 including taxes.

Domestic carriers are Vietnam Airlines with their subsidiary Vasco operating some shorter flights, Jetstar Pacific and VietJet.

BY TRAIN:

Although more expensive than buses, trains are undoubtedly the most comfortable way to travel overland in Vietnam. There is one major train line in Vietnam, the 1,723 km (1,071 mi) trunk between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, on which the Reunification Express runs. HCMC to Hanoi is more than 30 hours, and overnight hops between major destinations are usually possible, if not entirely convenient. It’s a good way to see the countryside and meet upper-middle class locals, but unless you are travelling in a sleeper car it is no more comfortable than buses.

Air conditioned soft or hard sleeper is recommended, and purchasing as early as possible is a good idea as popular berths and routes are often bought out by tour companies and travel agents well before the departure time (hence being told the train is sold out at a station ticket window or popular tour company office does not mean there are no tickets available: they’ve simply been bought by another reseller). Booking at the train station itself is generally the safest way, just prepare on a piece of paper the destination, date, time, no. of passengers and class. However, unsold tickets can often be bought last minute from people hanging around at the station. A train is rarely sold out for real, as the railway company will add cars when demand is high. Commissions on these tickets will drop away as the departure time draws nearer. Tickets can be returned before departure for a 10% fee. There is also an official Vietnamese Railways website, which has an English version and accepts payments by international bank cards.

Be cautious when using a travel agent to purchase your train tickets, since there is nothing printed on the ticket noting in which class you are booked. As of July 2018 tickets (now termed ‘boarding passes’) do indicate the class of ticket. This results in a common scam with private travel agents where you will pay them to book a soft-sleeper ticket, they then book you a cheaper hard-sleeper ticket, and you don’t know you’ve been scammed until you board the train and your berths are in the lower class. By then with the train on the verge of departing it is too late to go back to the scamming agent to demand compensation. With the new boarding passes this scam is less of an issue although buying your ticket directly from the train station remains the best option. Buying your ticket electronically from a booking site such as https://www.baolau.com/ is also safe and reliable. Once purchased you keep the details on your phone and upon arrival at the station simply go to one of the machines available for the purpose and print off your boarding pass. In some cases the staff who help you to access the platforms are able to scan your QR code directly from your phone, in others they direct you to the print option. In either case the process is problem free.

In addition, there are shorter routes from Hanoi leading northwest and northeast, with international crossings into China. One of the most popular of the shorter routes is the overnight train from Hanoi to Lao Cai (with a bus service from Lao Cai to the tourist destination of Sapa).

Always try to buy your tickets at least 3 days in advance, to avoid disappointment, especially during peak holiday season, during which you should try to book at least 2 weeks in advance.

If you are sensitive to cigarette smoke try to book a seat in the middle of the carriage as people smoke in the areas at the end of each carriage and the doors are often left open.

BY BUS:

Long-distance bus services connect most cities in Vietnam. Most depart early in the morning to accommodate traffic and late afternoon rains, or run overnight. Average road speeds are typically quite slow, even when travelling between cities. For example a 276 km (172 mi) journey from the Mekong Delta to Ho Chi Minh City by bus will likely take about 8 hours.

Public buses travel between the cities’ bus stations. In bigger places, you often have to use local transport to get into the city centre from there. Buses are generally in reasonable shape, and you have the chance to interact with locals. Bus stations are generally well organised, safe and easy enough to navigate even if you don’t speak Vietnamese.

Every major city will have a centralised bus station, and most of the major companies will have ticket offices at the stations. Some reputable companies include Mai Linh Express and Sinh Tourist.

Open tour buses are run by a multitude of tour companies. They cater especially to tourists, offering ridiculous low rates (Hanoi to HCMC: US$20-25) and door-to-door service to your desired hostel. You can break the journey at any point and continue on a bus of the same company any time later, or simply buy tickets just for the stage you’re willing to cover next. If you’re not planning to make more than 3-4 stops, it might be cheaper to buy separate tickets as you go (i.e. Hanoi to Hue can be as low as USas prices will vary on any given ticket or bus company. Going to the bus company office may net you a commission-free fare). Most hotels and guesthouses can book seats for any connection, although you’re better to shop around at travel agents, as prices will vary on any given ticket or bus company. Going to the bus company office may net you a commission-free fare, but most major bus operators have fixed pricing policies, which can only be circumvented through a travel agent.

Since tour companies charge very little, they do make commission on their stop-offs which are often at souvenir shops, where you do not have to buy; they always have toilets and drinks and water available for purchase. The estimated time for a bus trip will not be accurate and may be an additional couple of hours sometimes, due to the number of stop offs. Collecting the passengers at the start of the journey can also take quite a while too. Always be at least half an hour early to catch the bus. Try not to drink too much water, as rest stops, especially for overnight buses, may be just somewhere where there are a lot of bushes.

Vietnamese buses are made for Vietnamese people – bigger Westerners will be very uncomfortable, especially on overnight buses. Also, many Vietnamese are not used to travelling on long-haul buses, and will sometimes get sick – not very pleasant if you are stuck on an overnight bus with several Vietnamese throwing up behind you.

Even if you are sometimes bus-sick, it is advisable to book a sit at the middle rather than at the front of the bus. First, you will avoid viewing directly the short-sighted risks the driver is taking on the way. Second, you will somewhat escape the loud noise of non-stop honking (each time the bus passes another vehicle, that is about every 10 seconds).

Although the bus company will usually be happy to collect you at your hotel or guest house, boarding at the company office will guarantee a choice of seats and you’ll avoid getting stuck at the back or unable to sit next to your travelling companions. The offices are generally located in or near the tourist area of town, and a short walk might make your trip that much more pleasant.

The long haul bus companies operate from north to south and back on the only main road (QL1). If you take a bus going further than your destination, the bus will drop you off at the most convenient crossroad for it and not as you could have expected at the bus terminal of your destination. For Hué, this crossroad is 13 km from city centre, Nha Trang 10 km. At these crossroads, you’ll find taxis or mototaxis to get you to your hotel.

If you travel with bicycle, negotiate the extra fee with the driver rather than the ticket counter before buying your ticket. The bicycle fee should be no more than 10% of the ticket price.

A scam that you may encounter is that after arriving at your location, the guides will ask you whether you have booked a hotel. Even though you haven’t, say that you have and prepare the name of a hotel. If you say you have not booked one, they will charter a taxi for you and probably drop you at a hotel which they can collect commission. If you decide not to stay, things may get a little ugly, as they will demand that you pay the taxi fare, which they may quote as several times the actual fare for a ten minute ride.

Be very careful of your possessions on the overnight bus, as people (including bus employees) have been known to look through passenger’s bags and take expensive items such as iPods and phones and sell them on for profit. If you are travelling with an iPod, do not fall asleep with it in you ear, as the chances are it will be nowhere to be found in the morning. Get a padlock for your hand luggage and lock everything up in there before you go to sleep.

BY CAR:

Like its former colonial master, France, traffic moves on the right in Vietnam.

International Driving Permits are recognised in Vietnam. However, the concept of renting a car to drive yourself is almost non-existent, and when Vietnamese speak of renting a car they always mean hiring a car with a driver. (After a short time on local roads with their crazy traffic, you will be glad you left the driving to somebody used to it.) Since few Vietnamese own cars, they have frequent occasion to hire vehicles for family outings, special occasions, etc., and a thriving industry exists to serve that need. Vietnamese can easily hire anything from a small car to a 32-seat bus, for one day or several. Tourists can tap into that market indirectly by way of hotels and tour agents found in every tourist area. International car brands have started to surface. Budget Car Rental, one of the largest car rental companies in the world, now offers chauffeur driven services in Vietnam. Hiring a small car for a day trip returning to the point of origin costs around US$60 for 8 hours (though the price changes with the cost of fuel.) (If you shop around and bargain hard for the lowest possible price, you will probably get an older, more beat-up car. If you are paying more than bare minimum, it’s worth asking what sort of car it will be, and holding out for something comfortable.) Few drivers speak any English, so make sure you tell the hotel or agent exactly where you want to go, and have that communicated to the driver.

It’s also possible to hire a car and driver for inter-city travel, at somewhat higher cost. A small car from Saigon to the beach resort of Mui Ne, a 4- or 5-hour trip depending on traffic, costs about US$70, and Dalat to Mui Ne about US$90. Long distance travel by car may be a good choice for several people travelling together, as it provides a flexible schedule and flexible access to remote sites. Keep in mind that although a network of paved roads exists in Vietnam, long-distance road travel in Vietnam by whatever means (bus or car) is slow, with average speed less than 50 km/hour. Highway 1, the north-south backbone of the country, is a two-lane road with very heavy truck and bus traffic. Similarly, the main road of the north-west – the so-called Hanoi (Noi Bai) – Lao Cai Expressway is, in reality, merely a good two-lane paved road, with speed limits varying from 60 to 80 km/h, reduced in many places to 40 km/h due to road work (as of 2017). Tolls on this “expressway” are pretty hefty, but motorists pay them, because the alternative is using local roads, which in some sections are not paved at all.

In general, describing Vietnamese driving habits as atrocious would be an understatement. Road courtesy is non-existent and drivers generally do not check their blind spots or mirrors (in fact, many vehicles have had their wing mirrors removed). Vietnamese drivers also tend to use their horn very often to get motorcyclists and cyclists out of their way. In addition, most roads do not have lane markings and even on those that do, drivers generally ignore the lane markings. As such, driving yourself in Vietnam is not recommended and you should leave your transportation needs in the hands of locals.

BY BICYCLE:

Adventurous travellers may wish to see Vietnam by cycling. Several adventure travel tours provide package tours with equipment. Most of the population get around on two wheels, so it’s an excellent way to get closer to the people as well as off the beaten path.

Bicycles can be rented cheaply in many cities and are often a great way of covering larger distances. Good spots for cycling are Dalat, Hoi An, Hue and Ninh Binh. On the other hand, attempting to cycle in Hanoi or Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is virtually suicide without proper experience of traffic rules (or lack thereof, ‘proper experience’ in this case means understanding that everyone around you could potentially change direction without signalling and at any moment.) A general ‘rule of thumb’ when on a bicycle or motorbike is ‘expect the unexpected’. It’s like a school of fish traffic situation.

In cities like HCMC and Hanoi, parking bicycles on pedestrian areas is not allowed and you’ll have to go to a pay parking lot: 2,000 dong per bike, 5,000 dong for a motorbike.

BY MOTORCYCLE TAXI:

The xe ôm (literally “hugging vehicle”), a taxi-motorbike, is a common mode of transport for Vietnamese as well as tourists. They are widely available and reasonably cheap: about 10,000 dong for a 10-minute trip, which should get you anywhere within the city centre. Walk the city streets, and every couple of minutes a guy will flag your attention and say “You! Motobike?” Longer trips to outlying areas can be negotiated for 20,000-25,000 dong. Always agree on the fare before starting your trip.

Moto drivers rarely speak English. As with most things, a tourist will often be quoted an above-market price initially, and you need to be firm. If quoted anything over 10,000 dong for a short trip, remind the driver that you could take an air-con taxi for 15,000 dong so forget it. Occasionally drivers will demand more than the negotiated price at the end, so it’s best to have exact change handy. Then you can pay the agreed amount and walk away, end of discussion.

In some cases they will take you wherever they want (tourist attractions or shops you didn’t request to go) and sometimes they will wait for you to come back (even if you don’t want them to wait) and will ask you for more money for having been waiting. Even if you speak some Vietnamese, this is not useful, since they will cheat you anyway or they will act as if they don’t understand even if they do. Again, be firm and walk away.

BY MOTORCYCLE:

The 110 cc motorbike is the preferred mode of transport for the Vietnamese masses, and the large cities swarm with them. It’s common to see whole families of four cruising along on a single motorbike. In most places where tourists go, you can easily rent your own, with prices ranging from 100,000 to 160,000 dong per day. It is illegal for foreigners to ride a motorbike in Vietnam unless they are in possession of a temporary Vietnamese motorcycle licence, or an International Driving Permit with a valid home country motorcycle licence.

To convert your licence or International Driving Permit into a temporary Vietnamese licence you must hold a Vietnamese residence permit of at least three months’ validity or a three-month tourist visa. In Hanoi you should apply to the Centre for Automotive Training and Mechanism, 83a Ly Thuong Kiet St; in HCMC to the Office of Transportation, 63 Ly Tu Trong St, District 1.

If you ride unlicensed and have an accident in which a third party is injured or killed you could be subject to a term of imprisonment of 10-20 years, and pay a large sum in compensation to the victim or the victim’s family. Moreover, even if your travel insurance policy covers you for motorcycling (check the small print as many don’t), if you are injured when riding illegally the insurance company will not recompense you for medical attention, hospitalisation, evacuation to another country for hospitalisation or repatriation, the cost of which can run into tens of thousands of dollars.

Desk clerks at small hotels often run a side business renting motorbikes to guests, or have a friend or relative who does. Tour booths can usually do the same. In small towns and beach resorts where traffic is light, e.g. Pho Quoc, it’s a delightful way to get around and see the sights, and much cheaper than taxis if you make several stops or travel any distance. Roads are usually decent, though it’s advisable not to ride too fast and always keep an eye on the road for the occasional pothole.

Riding in the big cities, especially Ho Chi Minh City, is a very different matter, and not advisable unless you are an experienced rider with a very cool head. Traffic is intense and chaotic, with a long list of unwritten rules that don’t resemble traffic laws anywhere else. “Right of way” is a nearly unknown concept. Riding in HCMC is like finding yourself in the middle of a 3-D video game where anything can come at you from any direction, and you only have one life. Expats who brave the traffic at all typically have an apprenticeship of a few weeks or months riding on the back of others’ motorbikes to learn the ways of the traffic, before attempting to ride themselves. Extreme caution is advised for short-term visitors.

Riding long distance in the countryside can also be harrowing depending on the route you take. Major roads between cities tend to be narrow despite being major, and full of tour buses hell-bent on speed, passing slow trucks where maybe they shouldn’t have tried, and leaving not much room at the edge for motorbikes. That being said, there are many good roads and beautiful sights to be seen with the freedom of your own motorbike. As an alternative to the coastal highway (AH 1), the Ho Chi Minh Road (AH 17) is a quiet and scenic option for the adventurous. The road is in excellent condition, with upgrades from Buon Ma Thuat to Kon Tum. Shortly after Kon Tum the road enters the mountains close to the Lao border, with majestic scenery quiet and ethnic villages for 700 km, finally emerging back to the lowlands at the world heritage listed Phong Nha caves. This quiet alternative to the coastal chaos can be taken all the way to Ha Noi.

Two main categories of motorbike are available to rent: scooters (automatic transmission); and four-speed motorbikes, the gears of which you shift with your left foot. The ubiquitous Honda Super Cub is a common 4-speed bike that has a semi-automatic gearbox, i.e. no clutch so is relatively easy to ride. Other models may be fully manual and therefore you must also operate the clutch using your left hand – this takes a lot of skill and it’s all too easy to over-rev and pull a wheelie or stall the engine – if you end up with such a bike then practise releasing the clutch gently before hitting the roads. Dirt bikes are becoming popular for rent in Hanoi, other cities are not yet ready for these beasts. Rental agents tend to steer foreigners toward scooters if available, on the (plausible) assumption that they don’t know how to ride motorbikes that require shifting gears. Motorcycles of 175 cc and above are only legal to ride if you make a connection with a Vietnamese motorcycle club.

Most places you would want to stop at have parking attendants who will issue you a numbered tag and watch over your bike. Sometimes these parking operations are overseen by the establishment you are visiting, and sometimes they are free-lance operations set up in places where a lot of people go. You will usually see rows of bikes lined up parked. Depending on circumstance, you might park the bike yourself, or just take out the key, put it in neutral, and let the staff position it. In all but rare cases you keep the key. Parking is sometimes free at restaurants and cafes (look for “giu xe mien phi”). Elsewhere, fees range from 2,000 to 5,000 to 10,000 dong.

Traffic police in the cities pull over lots of locals (often for reasons that are hard to discern), but conventional wisdom has it that they rarely bother foreigners due to the language barrier. Obeying the traffic laws is nevertheless advisable, especially if you have failed to obtain a Vietnamese license. Cities like Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi have several one way streets, and it is too easy to just steer into them unknowingly as there are limited signs warning you. Be sure that if you break law, the police who are sneaking just at the right spot, will ask you to pull over and will fine you. They will also threaten to confiscate your bike. The quoted price for the fine is negotiable, and being apologetic and friendly can get you back on road quickly, with a few dollars less in your pockets. It is less likely that they will bully or harasses you.

Helmets are required by law, so if you don’t have one already ask your rental agent to provide you with one. Riding without a helmet greatly increases attention from the police.

BY CYCLO:

While slowly being supplanted by motorbikes, cyclo pedicabs still roam the streets of Vietnam’s cities and towns. They are especially common in scenic smaller, less busy cities like Hue, where it’s pleasant to cruise slowly along taking in the sights. Though the ride will be slow, hot and sometimes dangerous, you’ll generally need to pay more than for a motorbike for the equivalent distance. On the plus side, some drivers (particularly in the South) are very friendly and happy to give you a running commentary on the sights. Cyclo drivers are notoriously mercenary and will always ask for a high price to start with. Sometimes they will also demand more than the agreed price at the end. (Japanese tourists, especially women, are most often targeted with this scam since they are more responsive to the threat that the driver will call the police and make trouble for them if they don’t pay as demanded.) A reasonable price is about 20,000 dong for up to 2 km (1.2 mi), and if the driver disagrees, simply walk away. (You won’t get far before that driver or another takes your offer.) Prices for a sightseeing circuit with intermediate stops are more complex to negotiate and more subject to conflict at the end. If you plan to stop somewhere for any length of time, it’s best to settle up with the driver, make no promises, and start fresh later. Some drivers start with a very low rate to get you into their cycle and then if required to wait for you or otherwise vary the agreed price, bring out a typed up price list of their “standard rates” which are inflated beyond belief. If even slightly unsure ask the driver show you his list of charges. Then negotiate from that point or walk away. To avoid trouble, it’s also best to have exact change for the amount you agreed to pay, so if the driver tries to revise the deal, you can just lay your cash on the seat and leave.

BY BOAT:

You will be missing a big part of Vietnamese life if you do not spend some time on a boat. Do be careful though because many boats, although seaworthy, are not designed to first world standards. An example is the ferry from Phu Quoc to the mainland. This ferry has one tiny entrance for all passengers to board. When full, which it usually is, there are approximately 200 people on board. In the event of an accident, the chance of everyone getting out of the boat fast enough would be very small. The idea of an emergency exit does not exist there.

Tour boats can be chartered for around US$20 for a day’s tour; but beware of safety issues if you charter a boat, make sure the boat is registered for carrying tourists and has enough life jackets and other safety equipment on board. Or you can book a tour through a tour company; but in Vietnam most Tour Agents charge whatever markup they want and therefore the tourist is often paying margins of 30-40% and the boat owner and operator (of anything from a van to a boat etc.) are paid very little of the total amount.

Ha Long Bay is a famous destination for one- to three-day boat trips among its scenic limestone islands. The problem is that all the boats seem to visit the same places – and with high prices, poor quality boats and service real value is hard to come by. Many boats have a US$10 corkage fee, and forbid BYO alcohol, while on-board alcohol and seafood is about the same price as in Europe in some places. If there is rain, mist or low cloud, you may not see much. Try to pick a clear day.

Dozens of small family-operated boats ply the river in Hue taking visitors to the imperial tombs southwest of the city. This journey is long because the boats are slow, taking about 4 hours or so to make the journey in one direction.

Snorkel – fishing – lunch trips are available from Nha Trang, Hoi An, and Phu Quoc to nearby islands. In Central Vietnam northeast monsoon season limits many sea boat tours during the months Sep-Feb; other parts of Vietnam seem less affected.

A 90-minute hydrofoil boat operates from Saigon to the seaside resort of Vung Tau for about 200,000 dong each way, the fastest way to reach the beach from the city.

River tours are perhaps the most interesting. A day-long boat trip forms the core of almost any tour of the Mekong region.

BY TAXI:

Metered taxis are available in Vietnam’s larger cities. However, be wary of common taxi scams, such as drivers refusing to use the meter and quoting ridiculous fares, or rigged meters than jump at ridiculous rates. To minimise your chances of falling for a scam, try to learn to recognise the reputable large taxi companies are the city you are in. In Ho Chi Minh City, these would be Mai Linh and Vinasun, while in Hanoi, these would be Mai Linh and Taxi Group (a consortium of smaller companies including Taxi CP and Hanoi Taxi, with the same livery but different phone numbers). Be aware of fake taxis impersonating those companies though, usually identifiable with logos that are slightly off, of lower quality or with the wrong phone numbers. Drivers working for those companies are also required to wear a uniform while on duty, so a driver not in uniform is a dead giveaway of an impersonator. Drivers generally do not speak English, so be sure to have your hotel write down the names of your destinations in Vietnamese to show the driver. As of April 2019 taxi scams are few and far between and Vietnam has one of the most efficient taxi systems in South East Asia. As long as the meter starts automatically after the vehicle has been rolling for a few metres or the driver switches it on manually you shouldn’t be scammed.

The smaller the taxi the lower the flag fall: so a small compact saloon or equivalent will have a flag fall of 5,000 dong, a mid range saloon 9,000 dong and an SUV 11,000 dong. The flag fall fare is for a shorter distance the smaller the car so the 5,000 dong flag fall takes you 500 m, whilst the 11,000 dong will last for 850 m so on journeys longer than 1 km the size of the vehicle makes no difference. (somewhat complicated but after a few rides you’ll understand how the system works. In the evening these flag falls may rise by 1,000 dong.

Few drivers speak more than a few words of English so find the Vietnamese translation of your destination and write this down on a card. Drivers generally have a good command of the geography of their city and the nearest most passengers will come to being scammed is that the driver may select a slightly longer route than is strictly necessary – keeping Google maps open during your journey often prevents this but even if you do go slightly further to get to your destination this should not put you off using taxis, one of Vietnam’s transportation bargains.

In the more touristy destinations such as Sapa and Cat Ba, it is much more difficult to get drivers to use their meters than in the big cities and beach centres. Be prepared to walk away if the driver refuses to use the meter.

EAT:

Food is at the very core of Vietnamese culture: every significant holiday on the Vietnamese cultural calendar, all the important milestones in a Vietnamese person’s life, and indeed, most of the important day-to-day social events and interactions – food plays a central role in each. Special dishes are prepared and served with great care for every birth, marriage and death, and the anniversaries of ancestors’ deaths. More business deals are struck over dinner tables than over boardroom tables, and when friends get together, they eat together. Preparing food and eating together remains the focus of family life.

Vietnamese cuisine varies slightly from region to region, with many regions having their own specialties. Generally, northern Vietnamese cuisine is known for being subtle, central Vietnamese cuisine is known for being spicy, while southern Vietnamese cuisine is known for being sweet. There is also distinctive Vietnamese-Chinese cuisine to be found in Ho Chi Minh City’s Chinatown.

At the same time, the Vietnamese are surprisingly modest about their cuisine. (An old proverb/joke says that, “a fortunate man has a French house, a Japanese wife, and a Chinese chef.) High-end restaurants tend to serve “Asian-fusion” cuisine, with elements of Thai, Japanese, Chinese, and occasionally French mixed in. The most authentic Vietnamese food is found at street side “restaurants” (A collection of plastic outdoor furniture placed on the footpath), with most walk-in restaurants being mainly for tourists. Distinct regional styles exist: northern, central, and southern, each with unique dishes. Central style is perhaps the most celebrated, with dishes such as mi quang (wheat noodles with herbs, pork, and shrimp), banh canh cua (crab soup with thick rice noodles) and bun bo Hue (beef soup with herbs and noodles).

Many Vietnamese dishes are flavoured with fish sauce (nước mắm), which smells and tastes like anchovies (quite salty and fishy) straight from the bottle, but blends into food very well. (Try taking home a bottle of fish sauce, and using it instead of salt in almost any savoury dish: you may be pleasantly surprised with the results.) Fish sauce is also mixed with lime juice, sugar, water, and spices to form a tasty dip/condiment called nước chấm, served on the table with most meals. Vegetables, herbs and spices, notably Vietnamese coriander or cilantro (rau mùi or rau ngò), mint (rau răm) and basil (rau húng), accompany almost every dish and help make Vietnamese food much lighter and more aromatic than the cuisine of its neighboring countries, especially China.

Vietnam’s national dish is phở (pronounced like the fu- in funny, but with tone), a broth soup with beef, pork, chicken or seafood and rice noodles (a form of rice linguine or fettuccine). Phở is normally served with plates of fresh herbs (usually including Asian basil), cut limes, hot chilies and scalded bean sprouts which you can add according to your taste, along with chili paste, chili sauce, and sweet soybean sauce. Phở bò, the classic form of phở, is made with beef broth that is often simmered for many hours and may include one or more types of beef (skirt, flank, tripe, etc.). Phở gà is the same idea, but with chicken broth and chicken meat, so is Phở thit lon with pork, Phở tom with shrimp, and Phở chay with tofu and vegetable stock. Phở is the original Vietnamese fast food, which locals grab for a quick meal. Most phở places specialize in phở and can serve you a bowl as fast as you could get a Big Mac. It’s available at any time of the day, but locals eat most often Phở chay for breakfast. Famous phở restaurants can be found in Hanoi. The phở served at roadside stalls or informal restaurants tend to be cheaper and taste better than those served in fancier restaurants.

Street side eateries in Vietnam typically advertise phở and cơm. Though cơm literally means rice, the sign means the restaurant serves a plate of rice accompanied with fish or meat and vegetables. Cơm is used to indicate eating in general, even when rice is not served (i.e., An cơm chua? – Have you eaten yet) Though they may look filthy, street side eateries are generally safe so long as you eat at places popular among the locals and avoid undercooked food.

In rural and regional areas it is usually safest to eat the locally grown types of food as these are usually bought each day from the market. It is not uncommon that after you have ordered your meal a young child of the family will be seen running out the back towards the nearest market to purchase the items.

Most restaurants/cafes in Vietnam will have a bewildering variety of food available. It is very common for menus to be up to 10-15 pages. These will include all types of Vietnamese food, plus some token Western food, possibly some Chinese-style ribs and maybe a pad Thai as well. It is generally best to stick with the specialty of the area as this food will be the freshest and also the best-prepared. As in other South East Asian countries, the menu is often more an indication of what a restaurant can cook and not all items may be available at any given time.

In restaurants it is common practice for the wait staff to place a plastic packet (stamped with the restaurant’s name) containing a moist towelette on your table. They are not free. They cost between 2,000-4,000 dong. If you open it, you will be charged for it. Also, peanuts or other nuts will be offered to you while you are browsing the menu. Those are not free, either. If you eat any, you will be charged.

Vegetarian food is quite easy to find anywhere in Vietnam due in large part to the Buddhist influence. These restaurants will run from upscale to street stall. Any Vietnamese dish with meat can be made vegetarian with the addition of fake meats. Besides the Buddhist influence of two vegetarian days a month, Cao Dai people eat vegetarian for 16 days, and followers of the Quan Yin sect eat vegan daily. Look for any sign that says Com Chay or simply remember the phrase An Chay. Even if you are not a vegetarian, a visit to a Vietnamese vegetarian restaurant will add a few new flavours that you won’t find elsewhere. Also vegetarian food tends to be cheap which can help eke out the most hardened meat eaters budget. Be careful at regular stalls and restaurants though, as even dishes that seem vegetarian on the surface can sometimes make use to non-vegetarian seasonings such as fish sauce.

Coffee, baguettes, and pastries were originally introduced by the French colonisers, but all three have been localised and remain popular. More on cà phê below, but coffee shops that also serve light fare can be found in almost every village and on many street corners in the bigger cities. Bánh mì Hanoi are French bread sandwiches, freshly baked white bread baguettes filled with grilled meats or liver or pork pâté, plus fresh herbs and vegetables. They are delicious and should be enjoyed at least once during a visit. Most pastry shops serve a variety of sweets and quick foods.

Vietnamese waters are in danger of collapse from over-fishing. Nevertheless, for the moment if you like seafood, you may find bliss in Vietnam. The ultimate seafood experience may be travelling to a seaside village or beach resort area in the south to try the local seafood restaurants that serve shrimp, crab, and locally-caught fish. Follow the locals to a good restaurant. The food will still be swimming when you order it, it will be well-prepared, very affordable by Western standards, and served in friendly surroundings often with spectacular views.

All Vietnamese restaurants are controlled by the government, and some are fully owned by the government. Most restaurants’ hours are 10:00-22:00. Some open at 07:00 and some at 06:00 or 08:00. In 24-hour restaurants, there will be two prices. Prices are normal from 06:00 to 22:00, then doubled from 22:00 to 06:00. For example, rice usually costs 10,000 dong, but if you order after 22:00, the price will be 20,000 dong. This policy is government-mandated, to discourage people from eating late. Some dishes are not served after 22:00.

Cuisines other than Vietnamese, as well as fast foods, are increasingly available in the larger cities in the South and Central regions, less so in the North. Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Lao and other Asian restaurants are commonplace and Italian, French, German, Mexican, Russian, Ukrainian and Armenian restaurants can be found in most large cities in the South and Centre, as well as British, Irish an Australian food in bars and pubs. There is usually at least one Indian restaurant in most large towns and cities all over the country, many offering excellent quality food. Increasingly more affluent Vietnamese are sampling the different cuisines now available in their country so the chances of eating in a tourist ghetto are diminishing.

DRINK:

Drinking in a Vietnamese bar is a great experience. One of the interesting things is that during the day, it is almost impossible to see a bar anywhere. Once the sun goes down though, dozens appear on the streets out of nowhere.

Watch out for ice in drinks. Factory-made ice is generally safe, but anything else can be suspect. Factory ice has a hollow, cylindrical shape. Avoid irregular chunks of ice as it may be unclean.

Beer:

With a bottle of beer in a supermarket costing from 9,000 dong and in a bar from 20,000 dong, Vietnam is a beer-drinker’s paradise. The main brews are light lagers with a strength of 4.5-4.9%. Much research is needed to decide on one’s personal preference. Don’t miss out on bia hơi, (literally “air beer”), or draught beer made daily. It’s available throughout Vietnam, mostly from small bars on street corners. Bia hoi bars give you the opportunity to relax, drinking in a Vietnamese bar surrounded by the hustle and bustle of everyday life. Every traveller can easily find these bars to experience what the locals are enjoying. Only 5,000 dong each. The beer is brewed daily and each bar gets a fresh batch delivered every day in metal kegs. It’s a very light (3% alcohol) refreshing lager at a fraction of the cost of draught or bottled beer in the Western-style bars. Bia hoi is not always made in sanitary conditions and its making is not monitored by any health agency.

The most popular beer (draught, bottle or can) among the southern Vietnamese is Saigon Do (Red Saigon). For the northern Vietnamese Bia Hanoi (Hanoi beer) is the most popular brand, whereas central Vietnamese prefer Festival beer or Bia Huda. 333, pronounced “ba-ba-ba” is a local brand, but it’s somewhat bland; for a bit more flavour, look for Bia Saigon in the green bottle and a bigger bottle than Bia Saigon Special. Bia Saigon is also available as little stronger export version. Expect to pay about 20,000-30,000 dong per bottle of Saigon or Hanoi, slightly more for other brands, however it is still easy to find restaurants selling Bia Saigon for 10,000 dong in many cities apart from Ho Chi Minh. ‘Saigon Green’ delivers the best quantity versus price. Bière Larue is also good, and you can find local brands in every larger city.

The craft beer revolution has well and truly reached Vietnam and bottled IPAs, brown beers and stouts are available in the major cities. Ho Chi Minh boasts an increasing number of brew-pubs and microbreweries. These brews are available at a fraction of the price they cost in Thailand or Singapore.

It’s common for beer in Vietnam to be drunk with ice. This means that the cans or bottles need not be chilled. If you are drinking with Vietnamese people it is considered polite to top up their beer/ice before re-filling your own drink. It is also considered necessary to drink when a toast is proposed: “mot, hai, ba, do” (“one, two, three, cheers”). Saying “Trăm Phần Trăm” (100% 100) implies you will empty your glass.

Coffee:

Another popular drink among locals and tourists alike is the coffee (cà phê). Do be careful when drinking locally-prepared coffee as the locals tend to drink it incredibly strong with about 4 teaspoons of sugar per cup. It is usually served black or with sweetened condensed milk – usually over ice; this style is known in Vietnamese as cà phê sữa đá. Ask for cà phê sữa nóng if you want your coffee hot.

Vietnamese coffee beans are fried, not roasted. If you are picky, bring your own coffee.

Soft drinks:

Coconut water is a favourite in the hot southern part of the country. Nước mía, or sugar cane juice, is served from distinctive metal carts with a crank-powered sugar cane stalk crushers that release the juice. Another thirst quencher is the fabulous sinh tố, a selection of sliced fresh fruit in a big glass, combined with crushed ice, sweetened condensed milk and coconut milk. You can also have it blended in a mixer. You could place any fruit-type after the word sinh tố, e.g., sinh tố bơ (avocado smoothie) or sinh tố dừa (pineapple smoothie). If you prefer to have orange juice, you won’t use the word sinh tố but nước (literally: water) or nước cam if you would like to have an orange juice. Juices are usually without condensed milk or coconut milk.

Wine and liquor:

Vietnamese “rượu đế” or rice alcohol (rượu means liquor or wine [not beer]) is served in tiny porcelain cups often with candied fruit or pickles. It’s commonly served to male guests and visitors. Vietnamese women don’t drink much alcohol, well at least in public. It’s not recommended for tourists.

Dating back to French colonial times, Vietnam adopted a tradition of viticulture. Dalat is its centre, and you can get extremely good red and white wine for about USand you can get extremely good red and white wine for about US$2-3-3, however this is very hard to find. As of April 2019 few would describe Vietnamese wines as ‘extremely good’. There is a better range and better quality red wines than whites as reds seem to appeal more to the Asian palate. (the same applies in Thailand). Most restaurant wine is Australian and you will be charged Australian prices as well, making wine comparatively expensive compared to drinking beer or spirits. As of July 2018 Vietnamese wine has hit the mass market and is available by the glass or bottle in many restaurants. The quality ranges from the just-about-drinkable Vang Dalat Classic to the more than palatable Vang Dalat Premium. In supermarkets a bottle of Classic can be bought for around 80,000 dong whilst Premium is around 120,000. In restaurants a bottle of Classic costs 120,000 to 150,000 dong. Premium is less widely available in restaurants and where it is costs around 200,000 dong a bottle.

Imported wines, mainly Australian, French and Chilean are also available in supermarkets and in mid range and high end restaurants at far more expensive prices.

Rice spirits and local vodka is cheap in Vietnam by Western standards. Local vodkas cost about US$2-4 for a 750 ml bottle. Russian champagne is also common. When at Nha Trang, look for the all-you-can-drink boat trips for around US$10-15 for an all-day trip and party with on-board band.

Lodging is not an issue in Vietnam, even if you’re travelling on a tight budget. Accommodation in Vietnam ranges from scruffy USclean white sheets-a-night dorm accommodation in backpacking hostels to world-class resorts, both in large cities and in popular coastal and rural destinations. Even backpacking hostels and budget hotels are far cleaner and nicer than in neighboring countries (Cambodia, Thailand, Laos), and cheap hotels that charge USdisposable toothbrushes and so on. Service in many of the very inexpensive hotels is quite good (since the rate that a person pays per night could equal a typical Vietnamese national’s weekly pay)-10 for a double room are often very clean and equipped with towels, clean white sheets, soap, disposable toothbrushes and so on. Service in many of the very inexpensive hotels is quite good (since the rate that a person pays per night could equal a typical Vietnamese national’s weekly pay), although daily cleaning and modern amenities like television may not be provided. In hotels costing a few dollars more (USair conditioning and television. As with hotels elsewhere in the world per room upwards, more in Hanoi) you can expect an en suite bath, telephone, air conditioning and television. As with hotels elsewhere in the world, mini-refrigerators in Vietnamese hotels are often stocked with drinks and snacks, but these can be horribly overpriced and you would be much better off buying such items on the street. Adequate plumbing can be a problem in some hotels, but the standard is constantly improving.

It is a legal requirement that all hotels register the details of foreign guests with the local police. For this reason they will always ask for your passport when you check in. The process usually only takes a few minutes, after which they will return your passport. However, because non-payment by guests is by no means unknown, some hotels retain passports until check-out. If a place looks dodgy, then ask that they register you while you wait and take your passport with you afterwards. Few people have had a problem with this as it is routine across the country. You might find it helpful to carry some photocopies of your passport (personal data page and visa) which you can hand over to the hotel.

Hotels can be noisy, particularly when local families are staying. Vietnamese is one of the world’s more vocal languages, and local tourists are happy to give full vent to it from 6AM onward with scant regard for fellow guests. There are also a number of other sounds to be aware of when staying in Vietnamese hotels. Vietnam is a country under construction and the chance of the hotel being next to or very close to a building site is high. Also rooms in many small boutique hotels, guesthouses and home-stays are built fronting a central atrium or stairwell and the activities of the reception, common area and kitchen contribute more noises. Finally, there are the room-maids who start work soon after dawn and seem to think that you should be awake by then and consequently feel free to chat with each other at a loud volume and send and receive messages on mobile phones and walkie-talkies. If you are a light sleeper, bring a supply of earplugs.

**All travel information has been sourced from wikivoyage. However like wikipedia, wikivoyage is an open platform editable by any member of the public. Therefore, although very useful, all above information IS INDICATIVE ONLY and must be verified prior to personal use. Moreover, if you wish to see more information please visit: https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Vietnam
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Name: Ha Long Bay
Location: Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam
Ha Long Bay is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and popular travel destination in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. The name Hạ Long means "descending dragon". Administratively, the bay belongs to Ha Long City, Cam Pha City, and is a part of Van Don District. The bay features thousands of limestone karsts and isles in various shapes and sizes. Ha Long Bay is a center of a larger zone which includes Bai Tu Long Bay to the northeast, and Cat Ba Island to the southwest. These larger zones share a similar geological, geographical, geomorphological, climate, and cultural characters.

Ha Long Bay has an area of around 1,553 km2, including 1,960–2,000 islets, most of which are limestone. The core of the bay has an area of 334 km2 with a high density of 775 islets. The limestone in this bay has gone through 500 million years of formation in different conditions and environments. The evolution of the karst in this bay has taken 20 million years under the impact of the tropical wet climate. The geo-diversity of the environment in the area has created biodiversity, including a tropical evergreen biosystem, oceanic and sea shore biosystem. Ha Long Bay is home to 14 endemic floral species and 60 endemic faunal species.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hạ_Long_Bay
Name: Phú Quốc
Location: Kiên Giang Province, Vietnam
Phú Quốc is the largest island in Vietnam. The island has a total area of 574 square kilometres and a permanent population of approximately 103,000. Located in the Gulf of Thailand, the district of Phú Quốc includes the island proper and 21 smaller islets. Dương Đông town, is located on the west coast, and is also the administrative and largest town on the island. The other township is An Thoi on the southern tip of the island.

The economy is centred on fishing, agriculture and a fast-growing tourism sector. Phu Quoc has achieved fast economic growth due to its current tourism boom. Many infrastructure projects have been carried out, including several five-star hotels and resorts. Phu Quoc International Airport is the hub connecting Phú Quốc with mainland Vietnam and other international destinations.

From March 2014, Vietnam allowed all foreign tourists to visit Phú Quốc visa-free for a period of up to 30 days. By 2017, the government of Vietnam planned to set up a Special Administrative Region which covered Phu Quoc Island and peripheral islets and upgrades it to a provincial city with special administration.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phú_Quốc
Name: Hoan Kiem Lake
Location: Hanoi, Vietnam
Hoan Kiem Lake, is a fresh water lake, measuring some 12 ha in the historical center of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The lake is one of the major scenic spots in the city and serves as a focal point for its public life.

According to the legend, in early 1428, Emperor Lê Lợi was boating on the lake when a Golden Turtle God surfaced and asked for his magic sword, Heaven's Will. Lợi concluded that Kim Qui had come to reclaim the sword that its master, a local God, the Dragon King had given Lợi some time earlier, during his revolt against Ming China. Later, the Emperor gave the sword back to the turtle after he finished fighting off the Chinese. Emperor Lợi renamed the lake to commemorate this event, from its former name Luc Thuy meaning "Green Water". The Turtle Tower standing on a small island near the centre of lake is linked to the legend. The first name of Hoàn Kiếm lake is Tả Vọng, when the King hadn't given the Magical Sword back to the Golden Turtle God.

Large soft-shell turtles, either of the species Rafetus swinhoei or a separate species named Rafetus leloi in honor of the emperor, had been sighted in the lake for many years.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoàn_Kiếm_Lake
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Our team is dedicated to providing a consular service which focuses on attention to detail, delivering a personal approach and with a high focus on compliance. Feedback is very important to us, therefore any comments you provide about our service are invaluable.

Our team is dedicated to providing a consular service which focuses on attention to detail, delivering a personal approach and with a high focus on compliance. Feedback is very important to us, therefore any comments you provide about our service are invaluableI have provided some of my own personal testimonials over my years in immigration below; working and leading on very large projects...

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